What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is diagnosed when blood sugar (BS) is more than 126 mg/dL on fasting on two separate occasions, or random BS is more than 200 mg/dL on two separate occasions, or if fasting BS is >126 mg/dL once and random BS is >200 mg/dL on another occasion.

What Type of Diabetes Do You Have?

When discussing diabetes with your doctor, inquire about the specific type of diabetes you have:

  • Type 1: Characterized by insulin dependency due to insufficient insulin secretion by pancreatic cells.
  • Type 2: Often associated with obesity, characterized by insulin resistance, where the body’s cells do not respond effectively to insulin levels in the blood.
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Why Should I Get Treatment for Diabetes?

Diabetes, if not treated properly, can cause:

  1. Kidney destruction necessitates dialysis and kidney transplants.
  2. Arterial obstruction, leading to early stroke or heart attack.
  3. Blindness (regular eye checkups are essential).
  4. Neuropathy (nerve damage), causes pain in feet and hands.

Goals for Therapy

Lowering blood sugar levels to achieve a Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of less than 7% reduces the risk of kidney failure, heart attack, blindness, and stroke by 12–60%, depending on the effectiveness of maintaining proper and tight control of blood sugar.

How Should I Control My Blood Sugar?

It depends on you. Regularly check your blood sugar, follow your doctor’s advice, and adjust medication accordingly.

What Should I Do If I Am Diabetic?

1- Diet and Exercise:  Healthy lifestyle choices — including diet, exercise, and weight control — provide the foundation for managing type 2 diabetes. However, you may need medications. A low-sugar diet is very important to abandon adding sugar to your food and remove sugar containers from your table you should check your blood sugar three times per day and keep it less than 126. If you have hypertension low sodium (salt) diet is very important abandon adding salt to your food remove salt containers from your table check your blood pressure and keep it below 140/90. Do not use canned products since they have lots of salt in them. An overweight person needs to have a Low-calorie diet to lose weight and lower blood sugar and blood pressure. Low-fat food and preparing food in water not in oil is recommended. One-hour exercise every day like walking, running, and swimming will help to lower blood sugar and blood pressure. Quit smoking and alcohol habit.

2-Medication for Diabetes and Which One is Good for You?

Healthy lifestyle choices — including diet, exercise, and weight control — provide the foundation for managing type 2 diabetes. However, you may need medications to achieve target blood sugar (glucose) levels. Sometimes a single medication is effective. In other cases, a combination of medications works better.

Several classes of type 2 diabetes medicines exist. Each works in different ways to lower blood sugar. A drug may work by:

  • Stimulating the pancreas to produce and release more insulin
  • Inhibiting the production and release of glucose from the liver
  • Blocking the action of stomach enzymes that break down carbohydrates
  • Improving the sensitivity of cells to insulin
  • Inhibiting the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys
  • Slowing how quickly food moves through the stomach

Each class of medicine has one or more drugs. Some of these drugs are taken orally, while others must be injected.

Compare diabetes medications

Here’s an at-a-glance comparison of common diabetes medications. More medications are available depending on your needs and situation. Ask your doctor about your options and the pros and cons of each.

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